U.S. President Donald Trump said he was prepared to hit three Iranian targets as a reprisal, but retracted … [12], The Tanker War phase of the Iran–Iraq War started when Iraq attacked the oil terminal and oil tankers at Iran's Kharg Island in early 1984. Talmadge, Caitlin. Il est clair que les États Unis ont des preuves de ce qu'ils affirment. Iran have threatened to close of the Strait of Hormuz on multiple occasions, most notably in 2008, 2012, 2018 and 2019. [7] Il est parsemé d’îles désertiques ou peu habitées, mais d’une grande importance stratégique : les îles iraniennes d’Ormuz, et celles de Qeshm et de Larak, face à la rive iranienne de Bandar Abbas. Vidéo - Depuis que deux pétroliers ont été attaqués au milieu du détroit d’Ormuz, le 13 juin, la tension monte entre l’Iran et les Etats-Unis. [32], By 23 January, a flotilla had been established by countries opposing Iran's threats to close the Hormuz Strait. La tension monte d’un cran dans le détroit d’Ormuz. [70], In July 2012, the UAE began using the new Habshan–Fujairah oil pipeline from the Habshan fields in Abu Dhabi to the Fujairah oil terminal on the Gulf of Oman, effectively bypassing the Strait of Hormuz. bottom-moored contact mines; moored and bottom-influence mines; drifting mines and remotely controlled mines. However, closing the Strait of Hormuz, be it for a period of two weeks, would lead to catastrophic consequences for the global economy. Policy Focus, 2008. "Closing Time: Assessing the Iranian Threat to the Strait of Hormuz". Au sommaire cette semaine, l'escalade militaire dans le détroit d'Ormuz. A senior member of Iran's parliament said that the Islamic Republic would close the entry point to the Persian Gulf if new sanctions block its oil exports. La fermeture du détroit d'Ormuz, ne serait-ce que pour une période de deux semaines, entraînerait des conséquences catastrophiques sur l'économie mondiale. This followed more ambiguous threats from Iran's oil minister and other government officials that an attack on Iran would result in turmoil in the world's oil supply. [11], According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, in 2011, an average of 14 tankers per day passed out of the Persian Gulf through the Strait carrying 17 million barrels (2,700,000 m3) of crude oil. [22] Despite an initial 2% rise in oil prices, oil markets ultimately did not react significantly to the Iranian threat, with oil analyst Thorbjoern Bak Jensen of Global Risk Management concluding that "they cannot stop the flow for a longer period due to the amount of U.S. hardware in the area". "Iran threatens to block Strait of Hormuz over US oil sanctions". At the upper end of this gulf there is a market-town designated by law called Apologus, situated near Charaex Spasini and the River Euphrates. This was the first visit by a Prime Minister of Japan in 40 years. [70][71] The UAE is building the world's largest crude oil storage facility in Fujairah with a capacity of holding 14 million barrels to enhance Fujairah's growth as a global oil and trading hub. He indicated that tensions involving the Strait of Hormuz are leading those currently dependent on shipments from the Persian Gulf to find alternative shipping capabilities. Le détroit d'Ormuz, situé dans la zone où l'Iran a abattu un drone militaire américain, est un point de passage stratégique pour le commerce mondial de pétrole et au cœur des tensions régionales depuis des … Respectivement capitale économique et politique notoires des Emirats, ce … Il a ajouté que le Qatar est le principal pourvoyeur de terroristes du le monde arabe. Il a menacé à plusieurs reprises de bloquer le détroit d’Ormuz en cas d’action militaire américaine dans la zone. "[60], In May 2012, a learned article concluded that both the UNCLOS and the 1958 Convention on the High Seas would be violated if Iran followed through on its threat to block passage through the Straits of vessels such as oil tankers, and that the act of passage bears no relation in law to the imposition of economic sanctions. The Navy's regional commander, Vice Admiral Kevin Cosgriff, said the Iranians had "neither anti-ship missiles nor torpedoes" and he "wouldn't characterize the posture of the US 5th Fleet as afraid of these small boats".[15]. [45], In 2020, France deployed about 600 troops at sea and in the air under the CTF474 to protect maritime trade, regional business, and to ease local tensions. These small attack crafts can be armed with machine guns, torpedoes and anti-ship missiles. (2) Harassment of tanker traffic and damage to the infrastructure, as it was seen in the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. Haghshenass, Fariborz. [2][3], A third of the world's liquefied natural gas and almost 25% of total global oil consumption passes through the strait, making it a highly important strategic location for international trade.[3][4]. Although not all countries have ratified the convention,[8] most countries, including the U.S.,[9] accept these customary navigation rules as codified in the Convention. Most notably, this includes the United States Fifth Fleet based in Bahrain, and the Al Udeid Air Base, housing troops from the United States Air Force[68][69], In June 2012, Saudi Arabia reopened the Iraq Pipeline through Saudi Arabia (IPSA), which was confiscated from Iraq in 2001 and travels from Iraq across Saudi Arabia to a Red Sea port. Aujourd’hui, c’est faux. To reduce the risk of collision, ships moving through the Strait follow a Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS): inbound ships use one lane, outbound ships another, each lane being two miles wide. Plus de 500 navires avaient été détruits ou endommagés. Yet another reading of the tension in the Strait of Hormuz is possible. Le détroit d’Ormuz reste la voie de navigation quasi exclusive reliant les producteurs d’hydrocarbures du Moyen-Orient (Arabie saoudite, Koweït, Qatar, Emirats arabes unis, Irak et Iran) aux marchés d’Asie, d’Europe et d’Amérique du nord. On 28 April 2015, IRGCN patrol boats contacted the Marshall Islands-flagged container ship Maersk Tigris, which was westbound through the strait, and directed the ship to proceed further into Iranian territorial waters, according to a spokesman for the U.S. Defense Department. Defense Secretary Leon E. Panetta told troops in Texas that the United States would not tolerate Iran's closing of the strait. [21] A U.S. Fifth Fleet spokeswoman said in response that the Fleet was "always ready to counter malevolent actions", whilst Admiral Habibollah Sayyari of the Iranian navy claimed that cutting off oil shipments would be "easy". According to a 2012 article in The Christian Science Monitor, it simulated an attempt by Iran to close the strait. [62] These capabilities are meant to prevent advanced navies or other opponents to operate in the Strait and the Persian Gulf, and would be of particular concern to the U.S.[63] In 2016, it was assessed that Iran’s military strength was weak, even compared to regional rivals. Il est particulièrement vulnérable en raison de sa faible largeur, 50 kilomètres environ, et de sa profondeur, qui n’excède pas 60 mètres. Iran’s use of its territorial advantages in the Strait of Hormuz is therefore more effective as a threat, than if a complete or partial closure of the Strait is actually executed. [citation needed] "Iran's Threats, The Strait of Hormuz, and Oil Markets: In Brief". Warns Top Iran Leader Not to Shut Strait of Hormuz", "Oil Climbs From Four-Week Low as Iran Warns of Hormuz Supply Disruption", "Iran: Flotilla of Warships Sent Through Strait of Hormuz Heightens Tensions", "Iran: EU oil sanctions 'unfair' and 'doomed to fail, "Iran threatens to close Strait of Hormuz over EU oil sanctions", "Iran seizes commercial ship, U.S. forces respond", "Maersk insists on release of ship and crew seized by Iran", "Iran threatens to block Strait of Hormuz over US oil sanctions", "Iran's Guards say Strait of Hormuz is for all or", "Iran test-fires ballistic missile for first time in 2018, officials say", https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/04/iran-business-usual-strait-hormuz-blacklisting-190428133314213.htmlAljazeera.%7CAljazeera, https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/insidestory/2019/04/iran-close-strait-hormuz-190429190841982.html%7CAljazeera, "Tankers Are Attacked in Mideast, and U.S. Says Video Shows Iran Was Involved", "Latvian citizen on board of British tanker seized by Iran", "Iran says its seizure of British ship a 'reciprocal' move", "French ATL2 joins Operation AGENOR in the Strait of Hormuz", https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jul/05/iran-retaliate-us-oil-threats-eu-visit-hassan-rouhani-trump%7C, "How Iran could beat up on America's superior military", Closing Time: Assessing the Iranian Threat to the Strait of Hormuz, Costs and Difficulties of Blocking the Strait of Hormuz, "Iranian navy begins exercise in waters near strategic oil route", "Shutting Off Gulf 'Very Easy': Iran Navy Chief", "Hormuz Blockade: Not as Easy as Iran May Think", "Iran Has Ability to Block Strait of Hormuz, U.S. General Dempsey Tells CBS", "Transit Passage Rights in the Strait of Hormuz and Iran's Threats to Block the Passage of Oil Tankers", "New UAE pipeline bypasses Strait of Hormuz", "World's largest crude oil storage facility to be built in UAE", "The UAE's longer term approach on energy security", "How Great a Concern? Again, this action would be a risk to energy-security, and the steady flow of oil through the strait. Une partrouille maritime iranienne dans le détroit d'Ormuz, le 30 avril 2019. [23], On 3 January 2012, Iran threatened to take action if the U.S. Navy moves an aircraft carrier back into the Persian Gulf. "Iran's Threat to the Strait of Hormuz: A Realist Assessment". The UAE is also increasing Fujairah's storage and off-loading capacities. International Security, 2008. (1) A full closure of the Strait, which is an immense threat to global oil markets, and would likely result in a significant rise in oil prices. le deuxième verrou stratégique du commerce maritime c'est le détroit d'ormuz large d'une trentaine de kilomètres ce des trois voies transiter trente pourcent du pétrole mondial il est sous administration conjointe du sultanat d'oman et de l'iran en cas de crise majeure avec les puissances occidentales l'iran pourrait facilement prendre le contrôle du détroit et déstabiliser ainsi le commerce mondial depuis le … On the north coast lies Iran, and on the south coast the United Arab Emirates and … Foreign Affairs, 2012, p. 166-173. Le 12 août 2012, il entre en collision avec le pétrolier japonais MV Otowasan dans le détroit d'Ormuz. [19], On 20 March 2009, United States Navy Los Angeles-class submarine USS Hartford collided with the San Antonio-class amphibious transport dock USS New Orleans in the strait. | Iran subsequently denied the accusations, calling the incident a false-flag attack. Les États-Unis accusent l'Iran. [7] In 2018 alone, 21 million barrels a day were passing through the strait - this means $1.17 billion worth of oil a day, at September 2019 prices. On 3 July 1988, 290 people were killed when an Iran Air Airbus A300 was shot down over the strait by the United States Navy guided missile cruiser USS Vincennes (CG-49) when it was wrongly identified as a jet fighter. Les gardiens de la révolution, l’armée idéologique iranienne, contrôlent les opérations navales dans le Golfe. If Iran is to block the maritime traffic through the Strait, the violation of international norms and damage to the global economy would likely end up in international support to the U.S. acting against Iran. American Foreign Policy Interests, 2010. Iran’s fleet of small vessels, speedboats and submarines can be used for its rapid and covert mine-laying capabilities.[63]. Escalada de tensión en el estrecho de Ormuz: Irán intercepta una aeronave 'espía' y EEUU le acusa de derribar uno de sus drones 36:50. Position stratégique sur le Detroit d’Ormuz, hôte depuis 2009 d’une importante base militaire française à Abou Dhabi, participation militaire en 2011 au conflit en Lybie, ‘guerre’ interne depuis 2013/14 contre les Frères Musulmans, tension perpétuelle avec l’Iran et… Dubaï, Abou-Dhabi, des économies florissantes, un développement fulgurant. Regain de tension dans le détroit d’Ormuz. Aljazeera. Le détroit d’Ormuz, zone sous hautes tensions. Il est placé sous la double souveraineté d'Oman et de l'Iran mais la libre circulation y est, en théorie, garantie par une convention des Nations unies. [62], • Naval mine-laying capabilities. [65] In 2010, Iran was estimated to have at least 2,000 moored and drifting contact mines from Soviet, Western and Iranian sources. "Iran's Military Capability: The Structure and Strength of Forces". To traverse the Strait, ships pass through the territorial waters of Iran and Oman under the transit passage provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. In the last week of July 2008, in the Operation Brimstone,[18] dozens of U.S. and foreign naval ships came to undergo joint exercises for possible military activity in the shallow waters off the coast of Iran. That afternoon, U.S. secretary of state Mike Pompeo issued a statement accusing Iran of the attacks. Ratner, Michael. For our part, we are comfortable that we have in the region sufficient capabilities to honor our commitments to our friends and partners, as well as the international community." Sputnik France 33,279 views. Oct 6, 2017 - USS Thorn (DD-988) Spruance-class destroyer named for Lieutenant Jonathan Thorn, (1779-1811). [30] The United States had previously announced its intention to warn Iran that closing the Strait of Hormuz is a "red line" that would provoke an American response. It is striking to note that one of the tankers targeted was Japanese, and precisely took place as the Prime Minister of Japan, Mr Abe, was visiting Tehran. Gause, F. Gregory. Enquête Depuis mai, cet étroit corridor maritime est l’un des points chauds de la planète. [14] There were no injuries, and no oil leaked from the tanker. On August … Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Le mois suivant, des patrouilleurs iraniens tiraient des coups de semonce dans une apparente tentative d’interception d’un navire commercial battant pavillon singapourien. Il est particulièrement vulnérable en raison de sa faible largeur, 50 kilomètres environ, et de sa profondeur, qui n’excède pas 60 mètres. Ould Abdelaziz a comparé le Qatar et ce qu’il a fait aux pays arabes à l’Allemagne Nazie et à ce qu’elle a occasionnée aux pays européens. "[25], While earlier statements from Iran had little effect on global oil markets, coupled with the new sanctions, these comments from Iran are driving crude futures higher, up over 4%. During the 1970s, neither Iran or Oman attempted to impede the passage of warships through the strait, but in the 1980s, both countries asserted claims that were different from customary (old) law. It has a maximum capacity of around 2 million barrels per day, over three-quarters of the UAE's 2012 production rate. The opening to the Persian Gulf was described, but not given a name, in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a 1st-century mariner's guide: At the upper end of these Calaei islands is a range of mountains called Calon, and there follows not far beyond, the mouth of the Persian Gulf, where there is much diving for the pearl-mussel. [41], Aljazeera quoted Major-General Mohammad Baqeri of the Iranian Armed Forces, stating "We are not after closing the Strait of Hormuz but if the hostility of the enemies increases, we will be able to do so". En 2000, François Lamoureux, Directeur général à l’énergie de la Commission européenne, disait avec son sens de la formule : « Si le détroit d’Ormuz est bloqué, le lendemain le monde entier ira en vélo ». The US Navy sent aircraft and a destroyer, USS Farragut, to monitor the situation. Atta Kenare, AFP . [54], A 2008 article in International Security contended that Iran could seal off or impede traffic in the Strait for a month, and an attempt by the U.S. to reopen it would be likely to escalate the conflict. The battle, dubbed Operation Praying Mantis by the U.S., was launched in retaliation for the USS Samuel B. Roberts striking a mine laid in the channel by Iran on 14 April. "Iran's Threat to the Strait of Hormuz: A Realist Assessment". The assumptions and results were controversial. Point de passage stratégique : lieu de circulation important pour les différents acteurs en jeu. La région du Golfe et du détroit d’Ormuz est une fois de plus au cœur de vives tensions géopolitiques, sur fond de bras de fer entre l’Iran et les Etats-Unis. Since the first week of April 2020, the operation combines the Dutch frigate Ruyter, the French frigate Forbin, and one french airplane ATLANTIC2 (ATL2). [26], On 7 January 2012, the British government announced that it would be sending the Type 45 destroyer HMS Daring to the Persian Gulf. (3) At last, Iran can continue their threats of Strait closure as responses to U.S sanctions, or conduct more naval exercises, displaying their naval capabilities. Les tensions dans le détroit d’Ormuz ne devraient pas nous surprendre. [46], In May 2020, Iran launched missiles at one of their own ships in a friendly fire accident, killing 19 sailors.[47]. [66][63] A key interest to the U.S. in the Persian Gulf, is the free flow of oil and natural gas through the Strait of Hormuz. Gresh, Geoffrey. L’hypothèse d’une guerre États-Unis-Iran est même envisagée. It is widely acknowledged,[weasel words] that even a partial closure of the Strait would wreak havoc on the global oil markets and pose a severe threat to energy security. Principaux ports autour du détroit d’Ormuz. En juillet 1988, un Airbus A300 de la compagnie nationale Iran Air, assurant la liaison entre Bandar Abbas et Dubaï, avait été abattu par deux missiles d’une frégate américaine qui patrouillait dans le détroit : 290 personnes avaient été tuées. Vous avez choisi de ne pas accepter le dépôt de cookies, notamment les cookies de publicité personnalisée. [10] In July 1972, Oman also expanded its territorial sea to 12 nautical miles (22 km) by decree. [5][dubious – discuss] In the local dialects of Hurmoz and Minab this strait is still called Hurmogh and has the aforementioned meaning. [1] On the north coast lies Iran, and on the south coast the United Arab Emirates and Musandam, an exclave of Oman. In April 1959 Iran altered the legal status of the strait by expanding its territorial sea to 12 nautical miles (22 km) and declaring that it would recognize only transit by innocent passage through the newly expanded area. (ATTA KENARE / AFP), Covid-19: en France, une situation "fragile, précaire" pour Véran, Le socialiste Benoît Payan élu maire de Marseille, En Egypte, la pandémie attise la passion du oud, La mystérieuse vie privée de Vladimir Poutine, A un mois de l'investiture, Trump envisage tout pour renverser l'élection, En Algérie, les rendez-vous manqués du président Tebboune, Bons plans Ouigo : Voyagez jusqu'à 50% moins cher, Code promo SNCF : 5% de réduction vos réservations, Code promo Omio: 5% de réduction sur vos voyages durant les fêtes, 70€ de réduction offerts en code promo Abritel, Économisez sur vos réservations grâce aux Prix Secrets Hotels.com, Bose Pack bose soundsport wireless noir + étui de rechargement - PRIX A NÉGOCIER SUR LE SITE -, Portail battant en aluminium à motifs GATEO - 350 x 160 cm -, L'Obs - Les marques ou contenus du site nouvelobs.com sont soumis à la protection de la propriété intellectuelle, d’éviter désormais le survol du détroit d’Ormuz, l’attaque d’un oléoduc saoudien par des rebelles yéménites, de l’accord international sur le nucléaire. Le détroit d'Ormuz, passage stratégique sous haute tension Vendredi 21 Juin 2019 - Par seo. The United States Navy and United States Air Force in the Gulf region is far stronger than that of Iran, and while an Iranian attempt to close of the Strait can cause damage, the U.S. is able to defeat it. In the 10th–17th centuries AD, the Kingdom of Ormus, which seems to have given the strait its name, was located here. The Guardian, 2018. Naval Projection and the Strait of Hormuz". "Should We Stay or Should We Go? L’Iran, qui se considère comme le gardien du Golfe, dénonce régulièrement la présence de forces étrangères dans la région, notamment la Cinquième flotte des Etats-Unis, stationnée à Bahreïn. [33] These ships operated in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea off the coast of Iran. It provides the only sea passage from the Persian Gulf to the open ocean and is one of the world's most strategically important choke points. Iranian Threats to Close the Strait of Hormuz", "Transit Passage Rights in the Strait of Hormuz and Iran’s Threats to Block the Passage of Oil Tankers", VIDEO: Iran shoots down U.S. military drone over Strait of Hormuz, List of cities, towns and villages in Hormozgan Province, South Pars/North Dome Gas-Condensate field, National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company, DESA - Iran Heavy Diesel Manufacturing Company, Seizure of Abu Musa and the Greater and Lesser Tunbs, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Strait_of_Hormuz&oldid=994726380, Bodies of water of the United Arab Emirates, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles using infobox body of water without alt, Articles using infobox body of water without pushpin map alt, Articles using infobox body of water without image bathymetry, Articles with disputed statements from April 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2012, Articles with minor POV problems from April 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from September 2017, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2012, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Mohammed Kookherdi (1997) Kookherd, an Islamic civil at Mehran river, third edition: Dubai, This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 06:28. As of 11 August 2008, more than 40 U.S. and allied ships reportedly were en route to the Strait of Hormuz. info) Arabic: مَضيق هُرمُز‎ ‎ Maḍīq Hurmuz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.It provides the only sea passage from the Persian Gulf to the open ocean and is one of the world's most strategically important choke points. [39], In August 2018, Iran test-fired a ballistic missile for the first time in 2018. It followed President Trump’s open endorsement, during his recent visit to the archipelago, of Mr Abe's willingness … On 18 April 1988, the U.S. Navy waged a one-day battle against Iranian forces in and around the strait. [55] In a later issue, however, the journal published a response which questioned some key assumptions and suggested a much shorter timeline for re-opening. Le contenu de ce site est le fruit du travail de l'ensemble d'une rédaction qui oeuvre chaque jour à vous apporter une information de qualité, fiable, complète, et d'une équipe web qui vous propose des services innovants. Le détroit d’Ormuz, situé dans la zone où l’Iran a abattu jeudi 20 juin un drone militaire américain, est un point de passage stratégique pour le commerce mondial de pétrole et au cœur des tensions régionales depuis des décennies. Cela représente environ 21 % de la consommation mondiale de pétrole et un tiers du brut transitant par voie maritime dans le monde. Ratner, Michael. Si l’Arabie saoudite et les Emirats ont établi un réseau d’oléoducs pour contourner le détroit, ces voies alternatives ne convoient que des volumes limités (3 millions de barils/jour en 2018, pour une capacité totale de 6,8 millions) et elles ne sont pas épargnées, comme l’a montré en mai l’attaque d’un oléoduc saoudien par des rebelles yéménites. Additionally, a closing of the Strait would also have severe consequences for Iran itself. L’Iran a averti vendredi 21 juin qu’il défendrait son territoire contre d’éventuelles représailles des Etats-Unis, tandis que les compagnies aériennes KLM, Qantas, Singapore Airlines et Malaysia Airlines décidaient d’éviter désormais le survol du détroit d’Ormuz. États-Unis/Iran : nouvelles tensions dans le détroit d'Ormuz Depuis jeudi 13 juin et l'attaque de deux pétroliers, les tensions sont vives dans le golfe d'Oman. Military and diplomatic officials still expected a strike as of 7 p.m. Thursday in retaliation for Iran shooting down an unmanned American drone. The Iranian Navy Commander, Rear Admiral Habibollah Sayyari, stated that the strait would not be closed during the exercise; Iranian forces could easily accomplish that but such a decision must be made at a political level. Une des perturbations majeures du transport pétrolier remonte à 1984, en plein conflit Iran-Irak (1980-1988), durant la « guerre des pétroliers ». [67] This is why the U.S relies on a substantial navy and air-force presence, which secures the traffic through the Strait, and are prepared to counter Iranian attempts to blockade it. Le détroit d'Ormuz est stratégique dans le commerce maritime du pétrole. L’équipage de l’« USS Vincennes » avait affirmé avoir pris l’Airbus pour un chasseur iranien animé d’intentions hostiles. En avril 2015 encore, des bateaux des gardiens de la révolution avaient arraisonné dans le détroit d’Ormuz un porte-conteneurs des îles Marshall. [73], In a July 2012 Foreign Policy article, Gal Luft compared Iran and the Strait of Hormuz to the Ottoman Empire and the Dardanelles, a choke point for shipments of Russian grain a century ago. Scholars, historians and linguists derive the name "Ormuz" from the local Persian word هورمغ Hur-mogh meaning date palm.

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